* How have encounters between Europe and the world shaped European culture, politics, and society? https://www.goodreads.com/list/show/68.Best_European_Literature Major Themes in American Literature. * How and why have tensions arisen between the individual and society over the course of European history? Perhaps the most significant change since World War II has been the movement toward European economic unity and a common currency. After 1450, the old ideal that Europe constituted a unified Christendom was weakened by the rise of sovereign states. Philosophers of the natural world created a new theory of knowledge based on observation and experimentation, along with new institutions to put the new theories into practice. The ideal that every US citizen should have an equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination, and initiative. Electronic Inspiration LLC. Despite female involvement in movements of cultural and social change, gender norms continued to stress women’s intellectual inferiority and their duty of obedience to fathers and husbands, as well as limit access to institutional power. 10-76. *Not Affiliated, Sponsored or Endorsed by any University. At the same time as Europe was experiencing the material consequences of its interaction with the world, European intellectuals began to describe and analyze the peoples and cultures with which they came into contact, as well as to collect and catalogue the flora and fauna they discovered. African literature can be divided into three distinct categories: precolonial, colonial and postcolonial. Created by. 8 Major Themes of British Literature 17th Century (1625-1700) Elizabethan Age (1485-1625) Medieval Period (1066-1485) * The earlier seventeenth century, and especially the period of the English Revolution (1640–60), was a time of intense ferment in all areas of life — religion, The encounters with non-European peoples profoundly affected European trade, social life, and ideas. The ThemeTracker below shows where, and to what degree, the theme of The European Old World vs. the American New World appears in each chapter of The Portrait of a Lady. Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound's maxim to "Make it new." ... Read more. Oedipus Rex. Economic recovery brought new consumer choices and popular culture. Whatever the motivations, these explorations created new, complex trade systems that profoundly affected European prosperity, patterns of consumption, commercial competition, and national rivalries. 2020, https://www.paperdue.com/essay/major-themes-in-european-literature-104780, sixteen illustrate the major theme of this text which is how changes in the macro environment affect individual firms and industries through the microeconomic factors of demand, production, cost and profitability. Eds. During the Enlightenment, educated Europeans came to accept the world as governed by natural laws, accessible through systematic observation and articulated in mathematics. The growth of secular power played a critical role in the success of the Protestant Reformation, and states gained increasing influence over religious affairs. Eds. Thus, for example, there are a few novels and chronicles that Spell. Antigone. Though policies of unity have supported Europe’s postwar economic miracle, they have also encountered challenges of a stagnating population, financial crises, and growing social welfare commitments. Social values and communal norms were sanctified by religion. David Grene and Richard Lattimore. The history and literature of Continental Europe has been a specialty of the Newberry since its beginning, but like many other such broad fields, there are particular areas of great strength and others that are less well developed. Europeans also brought new diseases to the Americas, which hastened the collapse of the indigenous cultures on the two continents. Artists, musicians, and writers also employed empirical and quantitative methods to abstract the notions of space, time, and sound in new cultural movements, many of which continued to draw on classical subjects and motifs, such as the Renaissance. The love lyric has had a similarly heterogeneous background. It created financial markets that periodically crashed, putting people dependent on wages out of work and wiping out investors’ capital. In the mid–20th century, the rise of the United States as an economic and military power, two world wars, and the four-decades-long Cold War led to a decolonization movement that diminished Europe’s economic and diplomatic place in the world. World War I profoundly affected European society by conclusively ending the residual hold of old elites on power and democratizing society through shared sacrifice, represented by female suffrage in many nations. . The tone of literature shifted after years of grueling WWI combat. At the same time, the migration of non-European people into Europe began to change the ethnic and religious composition of European society and to create uncertainties about European identity. * How and why did Europeans come to rely on the scientific method and reason in place of traditional authorities? From the late 18th century to the era of decolonization, these Enlightenment principles influenced those who opposed Europe’s global domination. Wealth from commerce supported, in turn, the growth of industrial capitalism in subsequent centuries. Beginning in the 19th century and accelerating in the 20th, European artists and intellectuals, along with a portion of the educated public, rejected absolute paradigms (whether idealist or scientific), replacing them with relative and subjective ones, as exemplified by existential philosophy, modern art, and postmodernist ideas and culture. Over time, the new method for acquiring knowledge through observation and experiment raised questions about the relationship between the observer and the observed. Abolitionists objected to the system on humanitarian and religious grounds. Yet, this critique of colonialism did not have an immediate effect, given that the 19th century proved to be a period of empire building. These actions often led to resistance in colonial areas. Themes / Gender equality themes. The devastating impact of two world wars and the Great Depression transformed pre-1914 economic patterns and complicated the task of governments in managing the unstable economic situation. Web.21 December. However, cross-cultural influence flowed in both directions. HUMANISTIC PRINCIPLES IN THE CIRCLE OF EUROPEAN LITERATURE THEMES 555 3. 2nd Edition. At paperdue.com, we provide students the tools they need to streamline their studying, researching, and writing tasks. Beginning in the 19th century, new theories called into question the supremacy of reason and the possibility of finding objective truth in favor of subjective interpretations of reality and the importance of non-rational forces.