Plasma vitamin D and prostate cancer risk: Results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. Vitamin D supplementation and prevention of type 2 diabetes. While acknowledging that signs and symptoms of toxicity are unlikely at daily intakes below 250 mcg (10,000 IU), the FNB noted that even vitamin D intakes lower than the ULs might have adverse health effects over time. Scientific Reports 2020;10:7736. 2019 Mar;68(3):475-486. Real-time last sale data for U.S. stock quotes reflect trades reported through Nasdaq only. Gold price ends lower in first day of Christmas week tradimg, Weak Box Office for “Wonder Woman 1984” Is Bad Sign for Movie Chains, 7 COVID-19 tax relief measures that will expire at the end of the year unless Congress takes action, Bearish bets against Tesla stock have fallen to a record low, data provider says, American Electric Power Co. Inc. stock outperforms competitors despite losses on the day, CenterPoint Energy Inc. stock outperforms market despite losses on the day, Eversource Energy stock falls Friday, underperforms market, Ameren Corp. stock rises Friday, outperforms market, Consolidated Edison Inc. stock falls Friday, underperforms market, Southern Co. stock underperforms Friday when compared to competitors, NextEra Energy Inc. stock falls Friday, underperforms market, AES Corp. stock outperforms market on strong trading day, Evergy Inc. stock underperforms Friday when compared to competitors, Duke Energy Corp. stock underperforms Friday when compared to competitors, Exelon Corp. stock outperforms competitors despite losses on the day, Sempra Energy stock falls Friday, underperforms market, Entergy Corp. stock outperforms competitors despite losses on the day, Dominion Energy Inc. stock falls Friday, underperforms market, American Electric Power Co. Inc. stock rises Thursday, outperforms market, CenterPoint Energy Inc. stock rises Thursday, still underperforms market, Eversource Energy stock rises Thursday, still underperforms market, Ameren Corp. stock underperforms Thursday when compared to competitors despite daily gains, Consolidated Edison Inc. stock falls Thursday, underperforms market, FirstEnergy Corp. stock underperforms Thursday when compared to competitors, Dominion Energy (D) Outpaces Stock Market Gains: What You Should Know. Neurology 2012;79:2140-5. Absorption occurs by simple passive diffusion and by a mechanism that involves intestinal membrane carrier proteins [4]. Vitamin D 20 000 IU per week for five years does not prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes. Daily supplementation with 15 µg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: A 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial. Treatment with vitamin D and calcium reduces bone loss after renal transplantation: a randomized study. J Nutr 2016;146:855-6. However, clinical trials do not support a cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D and weight loss. Public Health Nutrition 2020;23:1153-64. Find real-time D - Dominion Energy Inc stock quotes, company profile, news and forecasts from CNN Business. The results showed no significant differences in rates of progression to type 2 diabetes; in serum glucose, insulin, or hemoglobin A1c levels; or in measures of insulin resistance. Cancer However, other, shorter (from 24 weeks to 5 years) clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation alone or with calcium in adults found greater risks of hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, but not of kidney stones [162,163]. In 2013–2014, an estimated 3.2% of the U.S. adult population took supplements containing 100 mcg (4,000 IU) or more vitamin D [42]. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:1608-14. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: Dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. [, Pittas A, Dawson-Hughes B, Sheehan P, Ware JH, Knowler WC, Aroda VR, et al. Individuals who have difficulty absorbing dietary fat might therefore require vitamin D supplementation [64]. In Canada, milk must be fortified with 0.88–1.0 mcg/100 mL (35–40 IU), and the required amount for margarine is at least 13.25 mcg/100 g (530 IU). Proportions at risk of deficiency were lowest among children aged 1–5 years (0.5%), peaked at 7.6% in adults aged 20–39 years, and fell to 2.9% among adults aged 60 years and older; patterns were similar for risks of inadequacy. [, Yao S, Kwan ML, Ergas IJ, Roh JM, Cheng T-YD, Hong C-C, et al. PLOS ONE 2014;9:e111265. Vitamin D status in gastrointestinal and liver disease. Total cancer incidence and mortality Clinical trials to date provide little evidence that vitamin D supplementation helps maintain glucose homeostasis, reduces the risk of progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, or helps manage the disease, particularly in vitamin D-replete individuals. The "Will of D." is a mystery surrounding some people who have the initial "D." in their names. [, Heath AK, Hodge AM, Ebeling PR, Eyles DW, Kvaskoff D, Buchanan DD, et al. [, de Koning EJ, Lips P, Penninx BWJH, Elders PJM, Heijboer AC, den Heijer M, et al. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency did not increase the risk of prostate cancer, and higher 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a lower risk. [, Yetley EA. Global consensus recommendations on prevention and management of nutritional rickets. In addition, older adults are likely to spend more time than younger people indoors, and they might have inadequate dietary intakes of the vitamin [1]. The AAP also recommends 10 mcg (400 IU)/day supplemental vitamin D for all infants who are not breastfed and ingest less than 1,000 mL/day vitamin D-fortified formula or milk. Clinical trial evidence on older adults Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1618-23. [, Sempos CT, Heijboer AC, Bikle DD, Bollerslev J, Bouillon R, Brannon PM, et al. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:352-64. How Are Utility ETFs Reacting to Mixed Q3 Earnings? [, Lukert BP, Raisz LG. In contrast to observational studies, clinical trials provide little support for the benefits of vitamin D supplementation for glucose homeostasis. Elsevier, 2018. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015;55:1193-205. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1154-60. Vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults. [, Robien K, Oppeneer SJ, Kelly JA, Hamilton-Reeves JM. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 2018;319:1696-1704. Very limited evidence suggests no substantial differences in the bioavailability of vitamin D from various foods [19]. [, Simon AE, Ahrens KA. An animal's diet affects the amount of vitamin D in its tissues. The study reports included 3–10 years of followup data. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2009. Vitamin D, Volume 2: Health, Disease and Therapeutics, Fourth Edition. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Observational studies support an association between higher serum 25(OH)D levels and a lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality. Diamond Hill Capital's Top 5 3rd-Quarter Buys, Analyst Provides Guidance for This Canadian Energy Company, RBC Capital’s Outlook for This Canada’s Energy Sector Company, Dominion (D) Q3 Earnings Surpass Estimates, Revenues Miss, Dominion Energy (D) Surpasses Q3 Earnings Estimates, Utility Stock Q3 Earnings Roster for Nov 5: DUK, D & More, 19 Election Stocks to Buy if Joe Biden Wins in 2020, Zacks Industry Outlook Highlights: NextEra Energy, Dominion Energy, Duke Energy Corp and Xcel Energy, 4 Electric Power Stocks to Tap Amid Coronavirus-Led Industry Woes. In contrast to the observational studies, clinical trials have provided little support for the hypothesis that supplemental vitamin D reduces the risk of CVD or CVD mortality. Since 2014, however, several published studies and meta-analyses have found no relationship between 25(OH)D levels and prostate cancer risk [111,112]. [, Pappa HM, Bern E, Kamin D, Grand RJ. Nutr Rev 2019;77:890-902. Mayo Clin Proc 2013;88:720-55. Beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks have small amounts of vitamin D, primarily in the form of vitamin D3 and its metabolite 25(OH)D3. In one meta-analysis of 46 clinical trials that included 4,541 participants, vitamin D supplements (typically 40 mcg [1,600 IU]/day or less) for a minimum of 4 weeks had no significant effects on systolic or diastolic blood pressure [127]. The weight-loss drug orlistat (Xenical® and alli®), together with a reduced-fat diet, can reduce the absorption of vitamin D from food and supplements, leading to lower 25(OH)D levels [164-167]. Women with 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) had a 43% higher MS risk than women with levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or higher. Similarly, in a review of data from nearly 250 studies published between 2009 and 2013, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded that no relationship could be firmly established between vitamin D and health outcomes other than bone health [70]. One recent clinical trial, for example, randomized 78 frail and near-frail adults aged 65 years and older to receive 20 mcg (800 IU) vitamin D3, 10 mcg 25(OH)D, or placebo daily for 6 months. Nutritional rickets among children in the United States: review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:3551-60. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, issue 9, Art. Intestinal absorption of vitamin D: A systematic review. Trends in use of high-dose vitamin D supplements exceeding 1000 or 4000 International Units daily, 1999-2014. [, Peterson L, Zeng X, Caufield-Noll CP, Schweitzer MA, Magnuson TH, Steele KE. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;110:1119-30. Role of vitamin D in atherosclerosis. One study found that when the 25(OH)D content of beef, pork, chicken, turkey, and eggs is taken into account, the total amount of vitamin D in the food is 2 to 18 times higher than the amount in the parent vitamin alone, depending on the food [20]. Br J Nutr 2013;109:1082-8. Screening for vitamin deficiency in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. One trial included 65 overweight or obese adult men and women (mean age 32 years) who were otherwise healthy, did not have diabetes, and had low serum vitamin D levels (at or below 50 nmol/L [20 ng/mL]) [147]. Bone mineral density, bone mass, and fracture risk are correlated with serum 25(OH)D levels in White Americans and Mexican Americans, but not in Black Americans [14,83]. A one-year trial to assess the value of orlistat in the management of obesity. A meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials in 1,273 men with prostate cancer found no significant differences in total mortality rates between those receiving vitamin D supplementation (from 10 mcg [400 IU]/day for 28 days to 45 mcg [1,800 IU] given in three doses total at 2-week intervals) and those receiving a placebo [116]. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on lower-extremity power and function in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. [, Ford JA, MacLennan GS, Avenell A, Bolland M, Grey A, Witham M. Cardiovascular disease and vitamin D supplementation: Trial analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis. [, Chakhtoura MT, Nakhoul N, Akl EA, Mantzoros CS, El Hajj Guleihan GA. June 2014. Vitamin D helps regulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (and thereby blood pressure), vascular cell growth, and inflammatory and fibrotic pathways [118]. Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Vitamin D is necessary for building and maintaining healthy bones. Relative effectiveness of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 in raising wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older adults. Ann Intern Med 2017;166:155-6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 weight-loss intervention studies that used caloric restriction, exercise, or both, but not necessarily vitamin D supplementation or other treatments, found that people who lost weight had significantly greater increases in serum 25(OH)D levels than those who maintained their weight [152]. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Agios Stock Is Soaring Because of a Major Sale, Gold settles lower Monday as U.S. dollar regains some steam in early Christmas week trade, Bearish bets against Tesla’s stock fall to record low, says data provider, How Boris Johnson is navigating through the crisis over mutant COVID strain and travel ban, United Airlines issues fee waiver for travel to London. Obese individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery can also become vitamin D deficient. [, Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, Lewis CB, Jackson R, LeBoff MS, et al. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults [6]. Clin Gastroeterol Hepatol 2020; published online ahead of print. 13-05183-EF-1. Studies of the effects of vitamin D supplements on hypertension have also had mixed findings. [, Tripkovic L, Wilson LR, Hart K, Johnsen S, de Lusignan S, Smith CP, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis. Vitamin D bioavailability: State of the art. Intake recommendations for vitamin D and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by expert committees of NASEM [1]. [, Dawodu A, Tsang RC. Pages 939-57 in Feldman D, Pike JW, Bouillon R, Giovannucci E, Goltzman D, Hewison M, eds. For example, a 3-year trial in New Zealand randomized 5,110 adults (mean age 65.9 years) to a single dose of 5,000 mcg (200,000 IU) vitamin D3 followed by 2,500 mcg (100,000 IU) each month or a placebo for a median of 3.3 years [124]. Another study included 2,259 healthy individuals aged 45 to 75 years who had had one or more serrated polyps (precursor lesions to colorectal cancer) that had been removed [102]. [, Gowda U, Mutowo MP, Smith BJ, Wluka AE, Renzaho AMN. In a meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies in a total of 137,567 participants who had 8,345 diagnoses of cancer, 5,755 participants died from cancer [88]. Black Americans, for example, typically have lower serum 25(OH)D levels than White Americans. b. a tonality having D as the tonic. Create a list of the investments you want to track. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016;12:693-702. In contrast, another meta-analysis of 30 clinical trials in 4,744 participants (mean age 54.5 years) that administered 5 mcg (200 IU) to 300 mcg (12,000 IU)/day vitamin D3 for a mean of 5.6 months showed that more than 20 mcg (800 IU)/day significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normal-weight participants who had hypertension [128]. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 observational studies that included a total of 31,424 adults (mean age ranging from 27.5 to 77 years) found an association between deficient or low levels of 25(OH)D and depression [130]. The company was founded by William W. Berry in 1983 and is headquartered in Richmond, VA. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals often contain added vitamin D, as do some brands of orange juice, yogurt, margarine, and other food products. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:4-9. Another study that compared 200 male smokers in Finland with pancreatic cancer to 400 matched controls found that participants in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D levels (more than 65.5 nmol/L [26.2 ng/mL]) had a threefold greater risk of developing pancreatic cancer over 16.7 years than those in the lowest quintile (less than 32 nmol/L [12.8 ng/mL]) [106]. The FNB committee also noted that serum concentrations greater than 125 nmol/L (50 ng/mL) can be associated with adverse effects [1] (Table 1). The importance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardization and the Vitamin D Standardization Program. This uneven distribution has led to speculation that lower vitamin D levels in people who have less sunlight exposure might predispose them to the disease [137]. [, Taylor CL, Roseland JM, Coates PM, Pehrsson PR. [, Zhang R, Li B, Gao X, Tian R, Pan Y, Jiang Y, et al. As a result, a finding can be falsely low or falsely high, depending on the assay used and the laboratory. [, Laurent MR, Gielen E, Pauwels S, Vanderschueren D, Bouillon R. Hypervitaminosis D associated with tanning bed use: A case report. Lancet 2014;383:1665-76. UVB radiation does not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors through a window does not produce vitamin D [29]. [, Song Z-y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: A dose-response meta-analysis. The groups showed no significant differences in measures of muscle strength or performance [85]. Vitamin D alone did not significantly affect the development of new serrated polyps, but the combination of vitamin D with calcium increased the risk almost fourfold. Many genes encoding proteins that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are modulated in part by vitamin D. Many tissues have vitamin D receptors, and some convert 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D. One meta-analysis of 20 clinical trials compared the effects of 0.5 mcg (20 IU)/day to 1,250 mcg (50,000 IU)/week vitamin D supplementation for 2–6 months with those of placebo on glycemic control in 2,703 adults from around the world who had diabetes [143]. In fact, Black Americans might have a greater risk than White Americans of falls and fractures with daily vitamin D intakes of 50 mcg (2,000 IU) or more [14]. 2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults from osteoporosis. Dietary supplements can contain vitamins D2 or D3. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Studies examining the effects of supplemental vitamin D on muscle strength and on rate of decline in muscle function have had inconsistent results [56]. [. Overall, clinical trials did not find that vitamin D supplements helped prevent or treat depressive symptoms or mild depression, especially in middle-aged to older adults who were not taking prescription antidepressants. Several studies published in 2014 suggested that high levels of 25(OH)D might increase the risk of prostate cancer. Another study randomized 100 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and older (most were White) with serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml) or less to 800 IU vitamin D3 or placebo for 1 year [86]. Cardiovascular disease However, frequent use of tanning beds, which provide artificial UV radiation, can lead to 25(OH)D levels well above 375–500 nmol/L (150–200 ng/mL) [158-160]. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008422.pub3. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. [, Holick MF. Obesity does not affect the skin’s capacity to synthesize vitamin D. However, greater amounts of subcutaneous fat sequester more of the vitamin [1]. It added that no national professional organization recommends population screening for vitamin D deficiency. I'd definition is - I would : I had : I should. Vitamin D did not significantly prevent the development of diabetes in comparison with placebo. Assessing vitamin D status by measuring serum 25(OH)D concentrations is complicated by the considerable variability of the available assays (the two most common ones involve antibodies or chromatography) used by laboratories that conduct the analyses [5,6]. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001;48:53-67. [, Chakhtoura M, Rahme M, Fuleihan E-H. Vitamin D metabolism in bariatric surgery. [. Nutrition 2015;31:421-9. Neurology 2017;89:1538-9. Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: New findings from an updated meta-analysis. [, Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, et al. The results showed that baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with total number of CVD events (including myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) and mortality risk [120]. Vitamin D is also needed for the normal development and growth of muscle fibers. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 11th ed. This damage hinders or blocks messages between the brain and body, leading to clinical features, such as vision loss, motor weakness, spasticity, ataxia, tremor, sensory loss, and cognitive impairment [136,137]. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. In foods and dietary supplements, vitamin D has two main forms, D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol), that differ chemically only in their side-chain structures. [, Brown LL, Cohen B, Tabor D, Zappala G, Maruvada P, Coates PM. They also help reduce fracture rates in institutionalized older people. Pancreatic cancer Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more have lower serum 25(OH)D levels than nonobese individuals. [, Singh P, Trivedi N. Tanning beds and hypervitaminosis D: A case report. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;110:1043-4. [, Kassi E, Adamopoulos C, Basdra EK, Papavassiliou AG. Picciano MF. [, Marrie RA, Beck CA. Plant milk alternatives (such as beverages made from soy, almond, or oats) are often fortified with similar amounts of vitamin D to those in fortified cow's milk (about 3 mcg [120 IU]/cup); the Nutrition Facts label lists the actual amount [24]. The federal government’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. However, because research has been conducted on vitamin D and numerous health outcomes, this section focuses on seven diseases, conditions, and interventions in which vitamin D might be involved: bone health and osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression, multiple sclerosis (MS), type 2 diabetes, and weight loss. These medications can reduce calcium absorption and impair vitamin D metabolism [171-173]. [, Chalcraft JR, Cardinal LM, Wechsler PJ, Hollis BW, Gerow KG, Alexander BM, et al. In contrast, a meta-analysis of 6 trials in 49,282 older adults found that daily vitamin D (10 or 20 mcg [400 IU or 800 IU]/day) and calcium (800 or 1,200 mg/day) supplementation for a mean of 5.9 years reduced the risk of any fracture by 6% and of hip fracture by 16% [82]. Vitamin D and calcium: A systematic review of health outcomes. All quotes are in local exchange time. Vitamin D: moving forward to address emerging science. Levels of 1,25(OH)2D do not typically decrease until vitamin D deficiency is severe [2]. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D are reported in both nanomoles per liter (nmol/L) and nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). J Am Geriatr Soc 2019;67:1043-49. 1. the fourth in order or in a series. Effect of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease in the Vitamin D Assessment Study: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012;36:387-96. In children, vitamin D deficiency is manifested as rickets, a disease characterized by a failure of bone tissue to become properly mineralized, resulting in soft bones and skeletal deformities [45]. It reflects vitamin D produced endogenously and that obtained from foods and supplements [1]. [, Song M, Lee IM, Manson JE, Buring JE, Dushkes R, Gordon D, et al. Overall, clinical trials show that vitamin D supplementation does not reduce CVD risk, even for people with low 25(OH)D status (below 20 nmol/L [12 ng/mL]) at baseline [93,124]. pii: E493. Most people in the world meet at least some of their vitamin D needs through exposure to sunlight [1]. [, Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. The Endocrine Society states, for example, that to maintain serum 25(OH)D levels above 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL), adults might need at least 37.5 to 50 mcg (1,500–2,000 IU)/day of supplemental vitamin D, and children and adolescents might need at least 25 mcg (1,000 IU)/day [11]. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;105:810-9. [, McDuffie JR, Calis KA, Booth SL, Uwaifo GI, Yanovski JA. Old English lower case letter d, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case d of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᛞ. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risk of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers: The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 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